Managing user accounts and security (2023)

To give users access to your database, you must create user accounts and assign the appropriate database access permissions to those accounts.A user account is identified by a user name and defines user attributes, including the following:

  • authentication method

  • Database authentication password

  • Standard tablespaces for permanent and temporary data storage

  • table space quota

  • Account status (locked or unlocked)

  • Password status (expired or not)

When creating a user account, in addition to assigning a username, password, and default tablespace, you must do the following:

  • Grant the appropriate system privileges, object privileges, and roles to the account.

  • If a user creates database objects, the user account is allocated a space usage quota for each table space in which the object will be created.

Oracle recommends that you grant each user just enough privileges to do their job, and no more. For example, database application developers need permission to create and modify tables, indexes, views, and stored procedures, but do not need (and should not be granted) permission to drop (drop) tablespaces or restore databases. You can create user accounts for database administration and grant those accounts only a subset of administrative privileges.

Additionally, you may want to create user accounts that will only be used by the application. That is, nobody logs in with those accounts; instead, the application uses these accounts to connect to the database, and users log into the application. This type of user account prevents application users from directly logging into the database, where they could inadvertently cause harm. CheckAbout user permissions and rolesknow more information.

When you create a user account, you implicitly create a schema for that user. AShemaIt is a logical container for user-created database objects such as tables, views, triggers, and so on. The schema name is equal to the user name and can be used to unambiguously refer to objects owned by the user. For example,HR staffSee the form abovestafffrom the insidesatplan. (fromstaffthe table belongssat.) conditiondatabase objectexistschema objectThey can be used interchangeably.

When you delete a user, you must also delete all schema objects for that user, or you must first delete the schema objects in a separate operation.

(Video) How to Manage User Accounts in Windows 10

predefined user accounts

In addition to the user accounts you create, the database contains several user accounts that are automatically created during installation.

All databases contain administrative accountsSystem,System, existDBSNMP.manage your accountis a highly privileged account and is only needed by individuals authorized to perform administrative tasks such as starting and stopping databases, managing database memory and storage, creating and managing database users, and so on. You log on to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express) using the commandSystemfromSystem.You assign passwords to these accounts when you create a database using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). You may not delete or rename these accounts.

All databases also containinternal account, which are created automatically so that each Oracle Database feature or component (such as Oracle Application Express) can have its own schema. To protect these accounts from unauthorized access, they are initially locked and their passwords are expired. (Afreeze bank accountis an account to which login is disabled. ) You may not delete internal accounts or use them to log into the database.

Your database may also containSample schedule, if you selected the option to create a sample schema in the database when installing the database. A sample schema is a series of interrelated schemas that Oracle documentation and reference material can use to illustrate common database tasks. These modes also give you a way to experiment without affecting production data.

Each sample plan has an associated user account. For examplesatuser account hassatA schema that contains a simple set of tables for an HR application. The trial mode account is also initially locked and the password has expired. As the database administrator, you are responsible for unlocking these accounts and assigning passwords to these accounts.

See also:

  • Locking and unlocking user accounts

  • About managing accounts and permissions

  • SYS and SYSTEM usersInformation on recommended alternatives for useSystemResponsible for daily administrative tasks

  • Database user account management

  • An example of an Oracle database schemaMore information on sample layout

    (Video) How to Set Up, Configure and Manage User Accounts on Windows 10

  • Oracle Database ConceptsDatabase security overview

7.1.1On commonality in CDBs

In a multi-tenant container database (CDB), this is a fundamental principle of generalityThe common occurrence is the same in every existing and future tank.In CDB, "common" means "common to all containers".Local phenomena, on the other hand, are limited to one existing container.

This is a consequence of the principle of communityOnly ordinary users can change the existence of ordinary phenomena.Specifically, only normal users connected to root can create, destroy, or modify CDB-scoped attributes for normal users or roles.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideUnderstanding CDB and PDB

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideInformation on running CDB and PDB users in CDB

A normal user is a database user with the same root identity in every existing and future pluggable database (PDB). Any normal user can connect and perform operations in root and any PDB that normal users have access to.

Each normal user is either provisioned by Oracle or created by the user himself. Examples of common users provided by Oracle areSystemexistSystem.

Ordinary users have the following characteristics:

(Video) 29 Creating and Managing User Accounts Windows Server 2016

  • Ordinary users can log into any container (includingCDB $ROOT) where there iscreate a sessionprivilege.

    Regular users do not need to have the same permissions in each container. For examplec##dbaA user can have permissions to create sessions in root and one PDB, but not in other PDBs. Because normal users with appropriate permissions can switch between containers, normal users can manage PDBs in the root directory.

  • The name of each user-created global user must begin with charactersC##fromC##. (Oracle's generic usernames do not have this restriction.)

    Local usernames cannot begin with a characterC##fromC##.

  • Common usernames must contain only ASCII or EBCDIC characters.

  • Each normal user has a unique name in all containers.

    Shared users reside in the root directory, but must be able to connect to any PDB with the same identity.

  • Regular user schedules may vary from container to container.

    For examplec##dbais a normal user with access to multiple containers, thereforec##dbaSchemas in each container can contain multiple objects.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideMore information about common users in the multi-user container database (CDB)

  • Oracle Database Security GuideLearn more about public and local accounts users in CDB

Local users are non-standard users that can only work within a single plug-in database (PDB).Local users have the following characteristics:

  • Local users are specific to a particular PDB and own the schema within that PDB.

  • Local users cannot be created in root.

  • A local user on one PDB cannot log on to another PDB or root.

  • Local usernames cannot begin with a characterC##fromC##.

  • A local user's name must be unique only within its PDB.

  • A username and the PDB containing that user's schema define a unique local user. For example, local user and named userto representcan exist inHR database.Completely separate local users and naming schemesto representcan exist insales database.

  • Whether local users can access objects in the shared schema depends on their user permissions.

    For examplec##dbaOrdinary users canc##dbaarranged inHR databaseVOB. Unless c##dba grants the necessary privileges locallysatusers of this table,satI can't reach it.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideMore information about local users

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideFor the scenario where the local user is in two VOBs

    (Video) Zobrio University- Managing User Accounts in FE NXT

  • Oracle Database Security GuideLearn more about local accounts

(Video) How to manage local administrator accounts on Windows Servers and Workstations using Group Policy


What will be the best way to handle user accounts? ›

Adopt a strong authentication mechanism, such as two-factor authentication, for user accounts that handle sensitive data. Use different passwords for different accounts, in particular those for handling private and sensitive data. Change your password immediately if you believe that it has been compromised.

What is user management in security? ›

User management is a system to handle activities related to individuals' access to devices, software, and services. It focuses on managing permissions for access and actions as well as monitoring usage. Functions of user management include: Providing users with authenticated access.

What is the main goal of user access security? ›

The basic goals of access control is to preserve and secure the confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility of information, systems, and resources.

What is a user account and its importance as a tool in managing users? ›

User accounts determine whether or not a user can connect to a computer, network or similar networks. A user account is one of the best methods to authenticate to a system and receive the necessary access of resources of that system.

How do you manage user account control? ›

Here's how to change UAC settings (Windows 10).
  1. On your keyboard, press Windows+R to open the Run window.
  2. Type Control Panel. Then select OK.
  3. Select User Accounts. Then select User Accounts (Classic View).
  4. Select Change user account control settings. ...
  5. Move the slider. ...
  6. Restart the computer.
Dec 22, 2022

What are the examples of user security? ›

Examples include codes generated from the user's smartphone, Captcha tests, fingerprints, voice biometrics or facial recognition. MFA authentication methods and technologies increase the confidence of users by adding multiple layers of security.

How does user management improve security? ›

Through UM, IT administrators can manage resources and access based on need, thereby keeping digital assets more secure. This also ensures a frictionless experience for the end-user, significantly improving the user experience.

What is an example of user access management? ›

For example, in a customer access management scenario, identity federation functionality lets users access a public website using their social networking credentials such as their Facebook, Google, or Microsoft login credentials.

What are the three 3 goals of security? ›

The CIA triad refers to an information security model made up of the three main components: confidentiality, integrity and availability.

What are the 3 main goals of security *? ›

Confidentiality, integrity and availability together are considered the three most important concepts within information security. Considering these three principles together within the framework of the "triad" can help guide the development of security policies for organizations.

What are the three important goals of security? ›

Included in this definition are three terms that are generally regarded as the high-level security objectives – integrity, availability, and confidentiality.

What are the 4 types of user accounts? ›

These accounts are system account, superuser account, regular user account, and guest user account.

What are the two main types of user accounts? ›

For personal computers, there are typically two types of user accounts: standard and administrator. A standard user is prevented from performing tasks such as installing applications, while administrators have the complete run of the computer.

What is the importance of managing accounts? ›

Management accounts give you up-to-date financial information of your businesses. When you have an accurate overview of your business today you can take better decisions for tomorrow. For example, this will help you see operating margins, or identify products that are selling slowly.

How do I manage multiple accounts? ›

Manage Multiple Accounts Without Losing Your Mind
  1. Start with yourself. ...
  2. Organize your inbox. ...
  3. Do at least one thing per client per day. ...
  4. Schedule one "meeting day" per week. ...
  5. Use a guide for common tasks. ...
  6. Use Slack for instant communication. ...
  7. Manage expectations. ...
  8. Err on the side of over-communication.
May 24, 2022

How do I run User Account Control as administrator? ›

  1. Open the Windows Control Panel.
  2. Click Administrative Tools > Local Security Policy > Security Settings > Local Policies > Security Options.
  3. Double-click Accounts: Administrator account status and select enable.

What does a user account do? ›

A user account is a collection of settings and permissions, specific to each user, that determine what the user can and cannot do on the computer. There are three levels of user accounts, each designed to enable or restrict changes to a computer's settings and programs.

What is an example of a user account? ›

A user account allows or does not allow a user to connect to a network, another computer, or other shares. Any network with multiple users requires user accounts. A good example of a user account is an Internet or your e-mail account.

What is the role of user account administrator? ›

The User Access Administrator role enables the user to grant other users access to Azure resources. This switch can be helpful to regain access to a subscription. For more information, see Elevate access to manage all Azure subscriptions and management groups.

What is the difference between computer account and user account? ›

Fundamentally, a computer account and a user account are made from the same attributes. Like a user account, the computer account has a password. Unlike a user account, this password is randomly generated.

How do you provide security to users? ›

Here are some practical steps you and your staff can take to improve your data security.
  1. Back up your data. ...
  2. Use strong passwords and multi-factor authentication. ...
  3. Be aware of your surroundings. ...
  4. Be wary of suspicious emails. ...
  5. Install anti-virus and malware protection. ...
  6. Protect your device when it's unattended.
Apr 19, 2023

What is a simple example of security? ›

At a basic level, a security is a financial asset or instrument that has value and can be bought, sold, or traded. Some of the most common examples of securities include stocks, bonds, options, mutual funds, and ETFs.

What are the 4 security types? ›

What are the Types of Security? There are four main types of security: debt securities, equity securities, derivative securities, and hybrid securities, which are a combination of debt and equity.

What is the summary of user management? ›

User management describes the ability for administrators to manage devices, systems, applications, storage systems, networks, SaaS services, and user access to other various IT resources. User management is a core part to any identity and access management (IAM) solution, in particular directory services tools.

Who is responsible for user access management? ›

(20) Business Owner or Custodian is responsible for approving new requests for user access to information systems.

What are 3 examples of access control? ›

Access control is a security measure which is put in place to regulate the individuals that can view, use, or have access to a restricted environment. Various access control examples can be found in the security systems in our doors, key locks, fences, biometric systems, motion detectors, badge system, and so forth.

What are the three C's of security? ›

Precision in security requires the data to be integrated in order to produce context, correlation and causation. We call it the "Three C's of Security."

What is the rule of 3 security? ›

Broadly speaking, the HIPAA Security Rule requires implementation of three types of safeguards: 1) administrative, 2) physical, and 3) technical.

Which security goal is the most important? ›

Protection goals of information security: Conclusion

The three most important protection goals of information security are "confidentiality", "integrity" and "availability". Confidentiality: To be able to guarantee it, you must clearly define who is authorized to access this sensitive data and in what way.

What is an example of a security objective? ›

An example of a security objective is: to provide a secure, reliable cloud stack storage organization-wide and to authorized third parties with the assurance that the platform is appropriate to process sensitive information. Use plain, concise and logical language when writing your information security objectives.

What is the first step to understanding a security? ›

The first step of security awareness is simply to understand the risks. Risks are the foundation of broader security programs and apply directly to human risk and security awareness. This means being aware of the potential threats and vulnerabilities that exist in your organization's technology and processes.

What are the correct goals of security? ›

Overview of goals of security: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

What are the security goals 5? ›

The U.S. Department of Defense has promulgated the Five Pillars of Information Assurance model that includes the protection of confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and non-repudiation of user data.

What is a security problem? ›

What is a Security Issue? A security issue is any unmitigated risk or vulnerability in your system that hackers can use to do damage to systems or data. This includes vulnerabilities in the servers and software connecting your business to customers, as well as your business processes and people.

What are the five 5 categories of users? ›

There are five main categories for computer users based on what they use their computer for and how advanced they may be. The five main categories of computer users are small office & home users, home users, mobile users, power users, and large business users.

What are the five categories of accounts? ›

The 5 primary account categories are assets, liabilities, equity, expenses, and income (revenue)

What is the difference between user and admin? ›

Answer. Administrators have the highest level of access to an account. If you want to be one for an account, you can reach out to the Admin of the account. A general user will have limited access to the account as per the permissions given by the Admin.

What is a standard user account? ›

A standard user account is designed for day-to-day computing. You can't do complicated system tweaks with it, but you can still perform everyday tasks without any issues. You can watch your favorite TV series, download files from the internet, make and edit presentations, edit videos and do much more.

Why do admins need two accounts? ›

If you require additional controls for user accounts with an administrator role, you must use separate accounts. By using separate accounts, you ensure that specific security policies can be scoped to only the administrator accounts.

What are the 5 key account management processes? ›

5 Steps to Great Account Management
  • Step 1: Profile your accounts.
  • Step 2: Identify the Decision-making Group. ...
  • Step 3: Target opportunities with greatest Return on Time Invested. ...
  • Step 4: Put your action plan together. ...
  • Step 5: Execute against the plan.

What is account management in simple words? ›

Account management is the practice of providing customers with service, support and improvement opportunities to increase their consumption of a product or service and maximize retention, cross-sell and upsell opportunities within the customer base. Learn more about account management.

What is the most important thing of account manager? ›

1. Communicating with clients to meet their needs. Considering the amount of work it takes for a business to gain reliable clients, keeping them long-term becomes one of the account manager's most important roles.

How do you handle multiple accounts? ›

Manage Multiple Accounts Without Losing Your Mind
  1. Start with yourself. ...
  2. Organize your inbox. ...
  3. Do at least one thing per client per day. ...
  4. Schedule one "meeting day" per week. ...
  5. Use a guide for common tasks. ...
  6. Use Slack for instant communication. ...
  7. Manage expectations. ...
  8. Err on the side of over-communication.
May 24, 2022

How do you handle user authentication? ›

The process is fairly simple; users input their credentials on the website's login form. That information is then sent to the authentication server where the information is compared with all the user credentials on file. When a match is found, the system will authenticate users and grant them access to their accounts.

How do I manage users in QuickBooks? ›

Add a QuickBooks Online user
  1. Go to Settings ⚙ and select Manage users. ...
  2. Select Add user.
  3. Select a user type, then select Next. ...
  4. Select the access rights for the user, then select Next.
  5. Select the user settings, if applicable, then select Next.
  6. Enter the user's name and email address, then select Save.
May 12, 2023

What are the steps to user account? ›

, click Control Panel, click User Accounts and Family Safety, and then click User Accounts. Click Manage another account. If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Click Create a new account.

How would you successfully manage multiple clients at once? ›

The best way to handle multiple clients is to keep a schedule and stick to it. Make sure you allocate specific times for each client and not let any one client monopolize your time. It is also essential to be organized and to have a system for tracking your work.

How many accounts should one person manage? ›

Typically 4-8 accounts per person.

How many accounts can one account manager handle? ›

Between 6 and 10 clients

A great percentage of our survey respondents believe that the ideal number of clients an account manager should handle is between 6 to 10. This number may be suitable for agencies with growing clientele.

What are the three factors of user authentication? ›

Authentication using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something you know (e.g. password/personal identification number (PIN)); (ii) something you have (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something you are (e.g., biometric). See authenticator.

How can I improve my user authentication? ›

Here are six ways that cybersecurity leaders can ensure secure access and authentication methods in their organizations.
  1. Use two-factor authentication. ...
  2. Require regular password changes. ...
  3. Implement account lockout policies. ...
  4. Ban public network access. ...
  5. Focus on employee education. ...
  6. Conduct regular penetration testing.
Apr 29, 2022

What are the 3 types of user permissions you can choose from in QuickBooks? ›

You can choose to give them all access, limited access or none. When you add a new standard user, you'll see what they can or can't do on the screen. Here's a summary of what the access options allow.

What is the benefit of managing users on QuickBooks? ›

Add users to help with your company's operations and bookkeeping. Customise each role and provide individual permissions for specific tasks. You can also give your accountant access to review your QuickBooks company. Your subscription level determines how many users you can add.

What are the 3 types of user permissions in QBO? ›

What different types of users can I add to my company?
  • Standard user - use this type to customise a user's access rights. ( ...
  • Company admin - these users have all access rights within QBO and to any other services your company is subscribed to.
  • Reports only (QBO 's version of Read Only access)
Dec 1, 2022

What is a user account short answer? ›

A user account is an identity created for a person in a computer or computing system. User accounts can also be created for machine entities, such as service accounts for running programs, system accounts for storing system files and processes, and root and administrator accounts for system administration.

What are the 4 types of users? ›

Four basic types of Users. (and how to identify them)
  • Socializers:
  • Achievers:
  • Explorers:
  • Players:
Feb 23, 2021

What are the 5 steps of user experience? ›

The 5 Steps of the UX Design Process
  • Step 1: Discovery. A strong foundation is crucial for the success of any website project regardless of the size of the endeavor. ...
  • Step 2: Define. ...
  • Step 3: Design. ...
  • Step 4: Develop & Launch. ...
  • Step 5: Analyze & Optimize.
Oct 14, 2021


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