Managing user accounts and security (2023)

To give users access to your database, you must create user accounts and assign the appropriate database access permissions to those accounts.A user account is identified by a user name and defines user attributes, including the following:

  • authentication method

  • Database authentication password

  • Standard tablespaces for permanent and temporary data storage

  • table space quota

  • Account status (locked or unlocked)

  • Password status (expired or not)

When creating a user account, in addition to assigning a username, password, and default tablespace, you must do the following:

  • Grant the appropriate system privileges, object privileges, and roles to the account.

  • If the user is creating database objects, assign the user account a space usage quota for each tablespace in which the object will be created.

Oracle recommends that you grant each user just enough privileges to do their job, and no more. For example, database application developers need permission to create and modify tables, indexes, views, and stored procedures, but do not need (and should not be given) permission to drop (drop) tablespaces or restore databases. You can create user accounts for database administration and grant those accounts only a subset of administrative privileges.

Additionally, you may want to create user accounts that will only be used by the application. That is, nobody logs in with those accounts; instead, the application uses these accounts to connect to the database, and users log into the application. This type of user account prevents application users from directly logging into the database, where they could inadvertently cause harm. CheckAbout user permissions and rolesknow more information.

When you create a user account, you implicitly create a schema for that user. AShemaIt is a logical container for user-created database objects such as tables, views, triggers, and so on. The schema name is equal to the user name and can be used to unambiguously refer to objects owned by the user. For example,HR staffSee the table abovestafffrom the insidesatplan. (fromstaffthe table belongssat.) conditiondatabase objectexistschema objectThey can be used interchangeably.

When you delete a user, you must also delete all schema objects for that user, or you must first delete the schema objects in a separate operation.

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predefined user accounts

In addition to the user accounts you create, the database contains several user accounts that are automatically created during installation.

All databases contain administrative accountsSystem,System, existDBSNMP.manage your accountis a highly privileged account and is only needed by individuals authorized to perform administrative tasks such as starting and stopping databases, managing database memory and storage, creating and managing database users, and so on. You log on to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express) using the commandSystemfromSystem.You assign passwords to these accounts when you create a database using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). You may not delete or rename these accounts.

All databases also containinternal account, which are created automatically so that each Oracle Database feature or component (such as Oracle Application Express) can have its own schema. To protect these accounts from unauthorized access, they are initially locked and their passwords are expired. (Afreeze bank accountis an account to which login is disabled. ) You may not delete internal accounts or use them to log into the database.

Your database may also containSample schedule, if you selected the option to create a sample schema in the database when installing the database. A sample schema is a series of interrelated schemas that Oracle documentation and reference material can use to illustrate common database tasks. These modes also give you a way to experiment without affecting production data.

Each sample plan has an associated user account. For examplesatuser account hassatA schema that contains a simple set of tables for an HR application. The trial mode account is also initially locked and the password has expired. As the database administrator, you are responsible for unlocking these accounts and assigning passwords to these accounts.

See also:

  • Locking and unlocking user accounts

  • About managing accounts and permissions

  • SYS and SYSTEM usersInformation on recommended alternatives for useSystemResponsible for daily administrative tasks

  • Database user account management

  • An example of an Oracle database schemaMore information on sample layout

    (Video) How to Set Up, Configure and Manage User Accounts on Windows 10

  • Oracle Database ConceptsDatabase security overview

7.1.1On commonality in CDBs

In a multi-tenant container database (CDB), this is a fundamental principle of generalityThe common occurrence is the same in every existing and future tank.In CDB, "common" means "common to all containers".Local phenomena, on the other hand, are limited to one existing container.

This is a consequence of the principle of communityOnly ordinary users can change the existence of ordinary phenomena.Specifically, only normal users connected to root can create, destroy, or modify CDB-scoped attributes for normal users or roles.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideUnderstanding CDB and PDB

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideInformation on running CDB and PDB users in CDB

A normal user is a database user with the same root identity in every existing and future pluggable database (PDB). Any normal user can connect and perform operations in root and any PDB that normal users have access to.

Each normal user is either provisioned by Oracle or created by the user himself. Examples of common users provided by Oracle areSystemexistSystem.

Ordinary users have the following characteristics:

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  • Ordinary users can log into any container (includingCDB $ROOT) where there iscreate a sessionprivilege.

    Regular users do not need to have the same permissions in each container. For examplec##dbaA user can have permissions to create sessions in root and one PDB, but not in other PDBs. Because normal users with appropriate permissions can switch between containers, normal users can manage PDBs in the root directory.

  • The name of each user-created global user must begin with charactersC##fromC##. (Oracle's generic usernames do not have this restriction.)

    Local usernames cannot begin with a characterC##fromC##.

  • Common usernames must contain only ASCII or EBCDIC characters.

  • Each normal user has a unique name in all containers.

    Shared users reside in the root directory, but must be able to connect to any PDB with the same identity.

  • Regular user schedules may vary from container to container.

    For examplec##dbais a normal user with access to multiple containers, thereforec##dbaSchemas in each container can contain multiple objects.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideMore information about common users in the multi-user container database (CDB)

  • Oracle Database Security GuideLearn more about public and local accounts users in CDB

Local users are non-standard users that can only work within a single plug-in database (PDB).Local users have the following characteristics:

  • Local users are specific to a particular PDB and own the schema within that PDB.

  • Local users cannot be created in root.

  • A local user on one PDB cannot log on to another PDB or root.

  • Local usernames cannot begin with a characterC##fromC##.

  • A local user's name must be unique only within its PDB.

  • A username and the PDB containing that user's schema define a unique local user. For example, local user and named userto representcan exist inHR database.Completely separate local users and naming schemesto representcan exist insales database.

  • Whether local users can access objects in the shared schema depends on their user permissions.

    For examplec##dbaOrdinary users canc##dbaarranged inHR databaseVOB. Unless c##dba grants the necessary privileges locallysatusers of this table,satI can't reach it.

See also:

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideMore information about local users

  • Oracle Multitenant Administrator's GuideFor the scenario where the local user is in two VOBs

    (Video) How to Add and Manage User Accounts on your Security Camera Recorder

  • Oracle Database Security GuideLearn more about local accounts

(Video) 29 Creating and Managing User Accounts Windows Server 2016


Managing user accounts and security? ›

In the User Accounts window, the middle section lets you change various aspects of user accounts. Clicking the Manage another account link takes you to a menu where you can add, edit, or remove user accounts.

How do you manage user accounts? ›

In the User Accounts window, the middle section lets you change various aspects of user accounts. Clicking the Manage another account link takes you to a menu where you can add, edit, or remove user accounts.

What is user security management? ›

User management offers a solution that helps IT keep control of users' activities and bolster other security measures to protect files, applications, systems, and devices on-premises and in the cloud from unauthorized access by internal and external users.

What is user accounts and security? ›

User account security policies help ensure that user accounts are protected and properly secured. Using account security policies, you can set the following account policies for AD accounts: ▪ Password Policy. ▪

How does user management improve security? ›

Through UM, IT administrators can manage resources and access based on need, thereby keeping digital assets more secure. This also ensures a frictionless experience for the end-user, significantly improving the user experience.

What are the 4 types of user accounts? ›

These accounts are system account, superuser account, regular user account, and guest user account.

What are the five areas of security management? ›

Understand the 5 Pillars
  • Physical Security. Physical Security relates to everything that is tangible in your organization. ...
  • People Security. Humans typically present the greatest threat to an organisation's security, be it through human error or by malicious intent. ...
  • Data Security. ...
  • Infrastructure Security. ...
  • Crisis Management.

What are the key elements of security management? ›

It relies on five major elements: confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and non-repudiation.

Why is managing user accounts important? ›

User management allows administrators to manage resources and organize users according to their needs and roles while maintaining the security of IT systems. Administrators need powerful user management capabilities that can allow them to group users and define flexible access policies.

What is the main purpose of a user account? ›

A user account is an established technique for connecting a user and an information service and/or computer network. User accounts determine whether or not a user can connect to a computer, network or similar networks.

What are user accounts? ›

A user account is an identity created for a person in a computer or computing system. User accounts can also be created for machine entities, such as service accounts for running programs, system accounts for storing system files and processes, and root and administrator accounts for system administration.

What is the summary of user management? ›

User management describes the ability for administrators to manage devices, systems, applications, storage systems, networks, SaaS services, and user access to other various IT resources. User management is a core part to any identity and access management (IAM) solution, in particular directory services tools.

Why is user management a key area of IT security? ›

Effective user management can help organisations ensure that they are maintaining their user based license compliancy, and helps with the transparency of user-based licenses. It is important to ensure that user based licenses, like Office 365 or Adobe Creative Cloud, are used effectively and to their full potential.

What is the main goal of user access security? ›

The basic goals of access control is to preserve and secure the confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility of information, systems, and resources.

What are the five 5 categories of users? ›

There are five main categories for computer users based on what they use their computer for and how advanced they may be. The five main categories of computer users are small office & home users, home users, mobile users, power users, and large business users.

What are the five categories of accounts? ›

The 5 primary account categories are assets, liabilities, equity, expenses, and income (revenue)

What is the difference between user and admin? ›

Answer. Administrators have the highest level of access to an account. If you want to be one for an account, you can reach out to the Admin of the account. A general user will have limited access to the account as per the permissions given by the Admin.

What are the 2 common types of accounts? ›

3 Different types of accounts in accounting are Real, Personal and Nominal Account. Real account is then classified in two subcategories – Intangible real account, Tangible real account. Also, three different sub-types of Personal account are Natural, Representative and Artificial.

What are the three C's of security? ›

Precision in security requires the data to be integrated in order to produce context, correlation and causation. We call it the "Three C's of Security."

What are the 3 important key security concepts? ›

Three basic security concepts important to information on the internet are confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Concepts relating to the people who use that information are authentication, authorization, and nonrepudiation.

What are the 3 key components of security? ›

When we discuss data and information, we must consider the CIA triad. The CIA triad refers to an information security model made up of the three main components: confidentiality, integrity and availability. Each component represents a fundamental objective of information security.

What are the 4 C's security? ›

Security: Code, Container, Cluster, and Cloud.

What are the 7 elements of security? ›

The 7 Elements of Human Security are defined by the United Nations as: Economic, Environmental, Food, Health, Political, Personal and Community.

What are the 4 fundamentals of security? ›

The key pillars that are foundational to the security of every computer system include identity and access management, threat protection, information protection, and security management.

What are the six basic security concepts? ›

The six basic security concepts that need to be covered by security testing are: confidentiality, integrity, authentication, availability, authorization and non-repudiation.

What are examples of security management? ›

What Is Security Management? Corporate security managers identify and mitigate potential threats to a company. For example, they assess safety and security policies to ensure that an organization's employees, products, buildings and data are safeguarded.

What is a user management policy? ›

Introduction. This User Management policy is a sub-policy of the Information Security policy (ISP- 01) and sets out the requirements for the effective management of user accounts and access rights.

What are the benefits of creating user accounts? ›

User accounts can increase retention, help users transition between devices or platforms, and provide opportunities to increase engagement and investment from users by giving them a sense of identity and personal storage space.

Why should we have multiple user accounts? ›

This provides additional privacy if the other users are standard user accounts. Note that administrator users have full system permissions and can view all files on the computer. System Permissions: Other user accounts can be either standard or administrator accounts.

What is the difference between user profile and user account? ›

A profile typically includes information about you that is displayed publicly. A person's profile provides a “a concise biographical sketch” (Merriam-Webster). An account typically includes information you need to share with the company for them to provide you services.

What is the difference between user account and computer account? ›

Fundamentally, a computer account and a user account are made from the same attributes. Like a user account, the computer account has a password. Unlike a user account, this password is randomly generated.

What type of information is included in user account? ›

A user account is a location on a network server used to store a computer username, password, and other information.

What is an example of user access management? ›

For example, in a customer access management scenario, identity federation functionality lets users access a public website using their social networking credentials such as their Facebook, Google, or Microsoft login credentials.

What are user management roles and permissions? ›

What are Roles? Rather than assigning individual permissions directly to each user, permissions are grouped into roles. You can define one or more roles on your site, and then grant permissions to each role.

What is the user account management standard? ›

The Account Management Standard provides requirements around creating and maintaining user and special accounts. The primary audience for the standard is account administrators. However, there are reporting requirements pertaining to personnel and roles and responsibility changes for managers as well.

How do I create and manage user Accounts? ›

Select Start > Settings > Accounts and then select Family & other users. (In some versions of Windows you'll see Other users.) Next to Add other user, select Add account. Select I don't have this person's sign-in information, and on the next page, select Add a user without a Microsoft account.

How to manage user Accounts command line? ›

Managing Accounts from the Command Line (net user)

Open Start, type: CMD, right click CMD then click Run as administrator. To view a list of user accounts on the system, type net user then hit Enter.

How do user Accounts work? ›

A user account is an identity created for a person in a computer or computing system. User accounts can also be created for machine entities, such as service accounts for running programs, system accounts for storing system files and processes, and root and administrator accounts for system administration.

How do I create a user account step by step? ›

, click Control Panel, click User Accounts and Family Safety, and then click User Accounts. Click Manage another account. If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Click Create a new account.

How do I run user account control as administrator? ›

Set Your Programs to Always Execute as Admin
  1. Click the start menu and look for UAC in the search field.
  2. Open UAC and click “Change User Account Control Settings.”
  3. On the Window that pops up, notes the slider and use the mouse to slide it down to the point marked “Never Notify.”
Oct 8, 2019

How many accounts should an account manager manage? ›

Between 6 and 10 clients

A great percentage of our survey respondents believe that the ideal number of clients an account manager should handle is between 6 to 10.

Which 3 commands are most commonly used for user management? ›

  • useradd.
  • usermod.
  • userdel.
Oct 21, 2021

How do I manage users on my computer? ›

Select Start > Settings > Accounts > Other users (in some Windows editions, it may be labeled as Other people or Family & other users). Under Work or school users, select Add a work or school user. Enter that person's user account, select the account type, and then select Add.

What is the command for user Accounts? ›

The Net User command can be used to create new user accounts on your computer and in your domain. To create a user account you will need to add the /add parameter and specify the username. A password is by default not required on a local computer.

What is a difference between a login and a user account? ›

User credentials are typically used in a username, and a password is referred to as a login. In a nutshell, logging in to a device, database, computer, account, or network system through a username and password is called login.

Does a user account provide security? ›

Your user accounts are the “key” protection for your digital information. Whether that data is stored on your computer at work, at home or in the cloud, chances are it is protected with a username and password. If criminals get access to or hack your password, they could then have access to all of your information.


1. How to manage local administrator accounts on Windows Servers and Workstations using Group Policy
(Danny Moran)
2. Linux Tip | Managing User Accounts and Passwords
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3. Zobrio University- Managing User Accounts in FE NXT
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4. Secure your Google Workspace user accounts
(Google Workspace)
5. Service accounts & security
(Google Cloud Tech)
6. How to Manage User Accounts in Windows 7, 8, or 10


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